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Criteria for diagnosis of diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disorder caused by the inability of the body to either produce or properly utilise insulin, the hormone responsible for sugar metabolism. As a consequence, the blood sugar levels rise and persistent elevation affects blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, heart, nerves etc. Type 1 diabetes is an auto immune disease in which the body's immune system produces antibodies, which destroy the cells producing insulin in the pancreas. It has an acute onset and is usually seen in children. Due to absence of insulin, patients need lifelong insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes, in contrast, begins as a resistance of the body to the action of insulin. This necessitates increased insulin production but finally this decreases and diabetes develops. Type 2 diabetes is usually seen in adults and people who are overweight. But with increasing obesity, this is occurring more often in young people.

Criteria for diagnosis of diabetes:
Random blood glucose > 200 mg/dl* with symptoms (increased thirst, increased urination and unexplained weight loss)
Fasting blood glucose > 126 mg/dl*
2 h blood glucose > 200 mg/dl* following an oral challenge with 75 g glucose
* This should be repeated on another day to confirm
Treatment aims to maintain:

Hb A1C <> 40 mg/dl Women > 50 mg/dl

Triglycerides <>

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